Scott J Cooper Council Reports Mantle Minerals Inside The Earth Have All The Water We Need

Pyroxene Mantle Minerals

The Earth’s mantle is filled with precious metals, stones, and minerals that have tons of practical uses. Ores can be used to construct machines, while precious stones can be used to construct decorative pieces or advanced circuitry, and precious metals can be used for satellites. However, researchers and miners are also interested in the tiny crystallized flecks that are encased within the minerals. They don’t contain water, but the ingredients for the liquid. However, when they’re melted, out comes water.

Water-Rich Mantle Minerals Have Changed Our Outlook

The discovery of possible mantle minerals has changed the way that we can look at harvesting water. It was not obvious to us that we were standing beneath a huge reservoir of the good stuff before. That is because the ground is usually dry and is made of a mineral called olivine. This, as you can probably predict, doesn’t have enough capacity to store water.

However, between 410 and 660 kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth, the water-rich mantle minerals reside. This particular region is called the transition zone, which is located between the upper and lower mantles and it’s chock full of beautiful minerals that contain water.

In March 2018, a team of researchers announced that diamonds had been found within the mantle which had water inside. The seismic data map that was constructed also showed that water-friendly minerals were trapped inside the Earth. This has led scientists to believe that a huge volume of water could be lurking beneath the Earth’s surface. This could potentially mean a few oceans’ worths of water are trapped beneath our feet.

However, this does raise a significant question. How is this possible? How were these mantle minerals able to trap so much water beneath the surface of the Earth?

The Transition Zone Holds Water-Rich Mantle Minerals

Mantle Minerals in Transition Zone
Mantle Minerals in Transition Zone

As the transition zone approaches 410 kilometers below the Earth’s surface, olivine is crushed into wadsleyite. High temperatures and pressures squeeze the olivine down and create gaps. This was only realized back in 1987 by a mineralogist named Joe Smyth. Turns out, these gaps would be perfect for the hydrogen atoms to nestle in and bond with adjacent oxygen atoms. Hence, when wadsleyite melts, it gives way to the water.

When one ventures deeper to the center of the Earth, they realize that these mantle minerals give way to ringwoodite.  Researchers in the 1990s conducted experiments on both ringwoodite and wadsleyite and found that they held 1-3% of their weight in water. Extrapolating from the current data, the transition zone is roughly 250 kilometers thick and accounts for 7% of the Earth’s mass. The crust, by comparison, is a paltry 1%. Hence, this means the transition zone could potentially hold more water than the Earth’s oceans.

Mantle Minerals: Speculation vs. Fact

Of course, this doesn’t mean that we can just start digging out of anticipation to solve the world’s water crisis. The analysis and calculation yield potential only. Hence, they show how much water the mantle minerals can hold. They don’t show what the actual water content is. According to Wendy Panero, Geophysicist at Ohio State, the calculation only shows “how wet the sponge is”.

One more caveat that the researchers hadn’t taken into account was the nature of ringwoodite. Most of them were only testing lab-grown ringwoodite. Most of the ringwoodite they had found in nature was within meteorites. However, that all changed in 2014.

What Does The World Cup Have To Do With Mantle Minerals?

During the 2014 Football World Cup in Brazil, geologists headed to the farmlands around Juina, which is 2000 kilometers west of Brasilia, Brazil’s capital. They were hunting for diamonds that had been banned from the local rivers. The diamonds were formed from heat and high pressure of the mantle and hence, they trapped other trace minerals. Due to the toughness and hardness of diamonds, these mantle minerals were likely to be preserved fully.

Brazil World Cup Mantle Minerals?
Brazil World Cup & Mantle Minerals?

The researchers were successful in buying more than a thousand of the precious stones. Back at the University of Alberta, Graham Pearson found ringwoodite in one diamond. This ringwoodite had water inside it, which was by 1% weight.

At last, Ringwoodite was found outside of a meteorite. Now there was actual proof that there was water within mantle minerals that lay beneath our feet. However, as seismologist Brandon Schmandt from UNM pointed out, it’s implausible that this represented an “average of the… transition zone”.

To put that claim to the test, Schmandt assembled a team to map the transition zone.  They would conduct seismic tests on a portion of the Earth’s mantle. They would use seismic waves to cause convection within the hydrous ringwoodite in the mantle. As a result, this would create pressure that would shake the water out. The mineral would then, in turn, melt and beneath the transition zone, pools of molten minerals would slow the seismic waves. The measurement of these waves beneath North America showed the research team that water was indeed trapped in mantle minerals. Another study beneath the European Alps provided similar results.

In March 2018, mineralogist Oliver Tschauner from the University of Nevada discovered diamonds containing water ice. This was the first independent observation of freely existing water from the mantle. Samples like this one were also found in southern Africa, China, and other places.

What do Mantle Minerals mean for Planet Earth?

For centuries, many believed that most of the Earth’s water came from the meteorites that struck the planet. Other explanations were thrown by the wayside. However, if further research proves that there is water beneath the mantle, then that story will have to be amended.

The transition zone, if only 1% water by weight, would contain twice the water in the world’s oceans. While the lower mantle is considered much drier, it’s also considered to be filled with water. This means that some of the planet’s water would’ve always been there. Despite the heat that the Earth experienced in its early days, water molecules may have stuck to earthbound dust particles. These would have then coalesced into the mantle minerals that we know of today.

114 thoughts on “Scott J Cooper Council Reports Mantle Minerals Inside The Earth Have All The Water We Need

  1. CBD for Sale says:

    Aw, this was a really nice post. Taking a few minutes and
    actual effort to create a great article… but what can I
    say… I put things off a lot and don’t seem to get
    nearly anything done.

    Feel free to surf to my blog post – CBD for Sale

  2. WilliamAmakE says:

    Профессиональное продвижение сайтов – Гарантированный результат в течении первого месяца! Никакой предоплаты, оплата по факту!
    Свяжитесь со мной через Telegram расскажу подробно!
    Работаю через договор!
    Разрабатываю чат-боты, магазины для Telegram!

  3. Zachary says:

    This design is incredible! You certainly know how to keep
    a reader entertained. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Great
    job. I really loved what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.
    Too cool!

  4. Heather says:

    Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a
    amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you!
    However, how can we communicate?

  5. Brian says:

    Excellent beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your web site, how can i subscribe for a blog website?

    The account helped me a acceptable deal. I had been a little
    bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear

  6. Frances says:

    I think everything posted was actually very reasonable.
    However, think on this, suppose you wrote a
    catchier title? I mean, I don’t wish to tell you how to run your blog, but suppose you added a
    post title to maybe grab a person’s attention? I mean Scott J
    Cooper Council Reports Mantle Minerals Inside The Earth Have All The Water We Need – Scott J Cooper is kinda
    plain. You ought to peek at Yahoo’s front page and see how they write post headlines to
    grab viewers interested. You might add a related video or a picture or two to grab readers excited about what you’ve written. Just my opinion, it could
    bring your posts a little livelier.

  7. Samantha says:

    I am really enjoying the theme/design of your weblog. Do you ever run into any browser compatibility problems?
    A small number of my blog visitors have complained about my website not working
    correctly in Explorer but looks great in Opera. Do you have any suggestions to help fix this issue?

  8. Jesse says:

    I do not know whether it’s just me or if everybody else encountering issues with your website.
    It appears as though some of the text on your content are running off the screen. Can someone else please provide feedback
    and let me know if this is happening to them
    as well? This may be a issue with my internet browser because I’ve had this happen previously.

  9. Kyle says:

    Hello, i believe that i noticed you visited my web site so i
    came to go back the want?.I am attempting to find things to improve my web
    site!I suppose its adequate to make use of some of your ideas!!

  10. Jacqueline says:

    You’ve made some decent points there. I looked on the internet
    for additional information about the issue and found most people will go along with your views on this site.

  11. Jacqueline says:

    Today, while I was at work, my sister stole my
    iPad and tested to see if it can survive a twenty five foot drop, just so she can be a
    youtube sensation. My apple ipad is now destroyed and she has 83 views.

    I know this is totally off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  12. Rose says:

    Have you ever thought about including a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is fundamental and all. But imagine if you added some great
    pictures or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”!

    Your content is excellent but with images and video clips, this site could definitely be one of the greatest in its niche.
    Very good blog!

  13. Christine says:

    Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you so much, However I am experiencing troubles with your RSS.
    I don’t understand why I cannot join it. Is there anyone else having similar RSS problems?
    Anyone that knows the solution can you kindly respond?


  14. Katherine says:

    Good day! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a
    blog article or vice-versa? My website discusses a lot
    of the same topics as yours and I think we could
    greatly benefit from each other. If you are interested feel free to send me an email.
    I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!

  15. Betty says:

    Howdy would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time making a decision between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and
    Drupal. The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m
    looking for something unique.
    P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

  16. Janice says:

    I’m really enjoying the theme/design of your site. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility issues?
    A couple of my blog audience have complained about
    my blog not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Safari.
    Do you have any suggestions to help fix this issue?

  17. Zachary says:

    Hi there! Do you know if they make any plugins to
    safeguard against hackers? I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any suggestions?

  18. Diana says:

    Greetings! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog
    platform are you using for this website? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m
    looking at options for another platform. I would be great
    if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  19. Kevin says:

    Wonderful website. Lots of useful info here.
    I’m sending it to some buddies ans also sharing in delicious.

    And of course, thank you on your sweat!

  20. Barbara says:

    This design is wicked! You obviously know how to keep a reader entertained.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved
    to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Fantastic job.
    I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.
    Too cool!

  21. Jordan says:

    Hi there fantastic website! Does running a blog such as
    this require a lot of work? I’ve no expertise in coding
    but I had been hoping to start my own blog soon. Anyway,
    if you have any ideas or tips for new blog owners please share.
    I understand this is off subject but I simply had to
    ask. Cheers!

  22. Jeremy says:

    This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger.

    I have joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of
    your fantastic post. Also, I’ve shared your
    site in my social networks!

  23. Maxine says:

    I think this is among the so much important information for me.
    And i am happy studying your article. But should
    statement on few normal issues, The site style is great, the articles is really great : D.
    Just right task, cheers

  24. canlı bet tv says:

    This is very attention-grabbing, You are a very skilled blogger.

    I have joined your rss feed and stay up for seeking extra of your great post.
    Additionally, I’ve shared your site in my social networks

  25. Robertnow says:

    Продвижение и раскрутка сайта
    Гарантированный результат, стоимость от 200$!
    Профессиональная настройка Яндекс Директ и Google реклама от 100$

  26. Billy says:

    I’m extremely impressed with your writing
    skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this
    a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice
    quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one today.

  27. longchamp bags says:

    Mais nous devons faire remarquer, qu’il en est de Muntanes comme de tous les autres statuaires espagnols, dont aucun ouvrage n’est inspire soit
    par la mythologie, soit par l’histoire grecque ou romaine.
    longchamp bags Un matin, comme
    il rentrait dejeuner, apres une promenade du cote de Chaillot, il trouva une carte de visite a tranche doree, sur laquelle
    s’etalait le nom de Gilquin, ecrit a la main,
    en belle anglaise; la carte etait tres sale, toute marquee de
    doigts gras.

  28. Kimberly says:

    Thanks for every other great post. The place else may anyone get that kind of info in such a perfect method of writing?
    I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I am on the look
    for such info.

  29. says:

    What i do not realize is if truth be told how you’re no longer actually much more neatly-favored than you may be now.
    You’re so intelligent. You know thus considerably relating to this topic, made me for my part consider it from so many various angles.
    Its like men and women don’t seem to be involved except it is something to accomplish with Lady gaga!
    Your personal stuffs outstanding. At all times maintain it up!

    Also visit my site:

  30. Lillian says:

    Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article.
    I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back
    to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post.

    I will certainly return.

    My webpage :: Lillian

  31. Christina says:

    Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any problems with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing months of hard work due to no backup.
    Do you have any methods to protect against hackers?

  32. Carol says:

    At this time it looks like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now.
    (from what I’ve read) Is that what you are using on your blog?

  33. Anna says:

    Just want to say your article is as amazing. The clearness in your post is simply nice and i could
    assume you’re an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let
    me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

  34. v bucks free says:

    A person essentially help to make seriously posts I’d
    state. This is the very first time I frequented your website page and thus far?
    I amazed with the research you made to create this actual put up extraordinary.

    Excellent activity!

  35. Karen says:

    Great post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed!
    Very helpful information specially the last part 🙂 I care
    for such info a lot. I used to be seeking this certain info for
    a very lengthy time. Thanks and best of luck.

  36. Victoria says:

    I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish.
    nonetheless, you command get bought an shakiness over that you wish be delivering the following.

    unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly the same nearly
    a lot often inside case you shield this hike.

  37. psn free codes says:

    Someone necessarily assist to make critically posts
    I would state. This is the very first time I frequented
    your website page and to this point? I amazed with the
    analysis you made to make this actual post amazing. Wonderful activity!

  38. free v bucks says:

    Excellent post. I was checking continuously this blog
    and I’m impressed! Very useful information specially the
    last part 🙂 I care for such information much. I was seeking this certain information for a very
    long time. Thank you and good luck.

  39. coin master free spins says:

    Having read this I believed it was extremely informative. I appreciate you finding the
    time and effort to put this information together.
    I once again find myself spending a lot of time both reading
    and leaving comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  40. brawl stars hack says:

    You really make it appear really easy together with your presentation however I find this topic to be really something
    which I think I would never understand. It kind of feels too complex and extremely vast for me.
    I’m taking a look ahead on your subsequent put up, I’ll try to get
    the hold of it!

  41. Joe says:

    Wow, marvelous blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your website
    is magnificent, as well as the content!

  42. avast keygen says:

    With havin so much written content do you ever
    run into any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement?

    My site has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either
    authored myself or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is
    popping it up all over the internet without
    my agreement. Do you know any ways to help reduce content from being ripped off?
    I’d really appreciate it.

  43. Randy says:

    Hmm it looks like your blog ate my first comment (it was super
    long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I had written and say, I’m thoroughly
    enjoying your blog. I as well am an aspiring blog writer but I’m
    still new to the whole thing. Do you have any tips for rookie blog writers?

    I’d certainly appreciate it.

  44. Angela says:

    Hey there! This is kind of off topic but I need some help from an established blog.
    Is it very difficult to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure
    things out pretty quick. I’m thinking about setting up my own but I’m not sure where
    to start. Do you have any tips or suggestions?
    Thank you

  45. Grace says:

    Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though
    you relied on the video to make your point. You definitely know what
    youre talking about, why throw away your intelligence on just
    posting videos to your blog when you could be giving us something
    informative to read?

  46. Heather says:

    I believe that is among the most vital info for me.
    And i’m satisfied studying your article. But should remark on few basic
    things, The site style is great, the articles is really great :
    D. Just right task, cheers

  47. robux generator says:

    you are actually a just right webmaster. The web
    site loading velocity is amazing. It sort of feels that you are doing any distinctive trick.
    Furthermore, The contents are masterwork. you have done a wonderful activity on this matter!

  48. free robux website says:

    Heya just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the
    images aren’t loading properly. I’m not sure
    why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two
    different browsers and both show the same outcome.

  49. says:

    I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own weblog and
    was curious what all is required to get setup?
    I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
    I’m not very web smart so I’m not 100% sure.
    Any recommendations or advice would be greatly appreciated.

    Many thanks

  50. mike tyson vs roy jones live stream says:

    It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d without a doubt donate to this fantastic blog!
    I suppose for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding
    your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to fresh updates and will share this blog with my Facebook group.

    Chat soon!

  51. free netflix says:

    I’m excited to find this website. I need to to thank you
    for your time for this particularly wonderful read!!
    I definitely savored every little bit of it and i also have
    you book marked to look at new stuff on your site.

  52. free amazon gift card generator says:

    Greetings! I know this is kinda off topic but I was
    wondering which blog platform are you using for this website?
    I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for another platform.
    I would be fantastic if you could point me
    in the direction of a good platform.

  53. robux generator says:

    I am really loving the theme/design of your weblog.
    Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility problems?
    A number of my blog audience have complained about my site not working correctly in Explorer but
    looks great in Chrome. Do you have any advice to help fix this issue?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.