Mantle Minerals Inside The Earth Have All The Water We Need

Pyroxene Mantle Minerals

The Earth’s mantle is filled with precious metals, stones, and minerals that have tons of practical uses. Ores can be used to construct machines, while precious stones can be used to construct decorative pieces or advanced circuitry, and precious metals can be used for satellites. However, researchers and miners are also interested in the tiny crystallized flecks that are encased within the minerals. They don’t contain water, but the ingredients for the liquid. However, when they’re melted, out comes water.

Water-Rich Mantle Minerals Have Changed Our Outlook

The discovery of possible mantle minerals has changed the way that we can look at harvesting water. It was not obvious to us that we were standing beneath a huge reservoir of the good stuff before. That is because the ground is usually dry and is made of a mineral called olivine. This, as you can probably predict, doesn’t have enough capacity to store water.

However, between 410 and 660 kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth, the water-rich mantle minerals reside. This particular region is called the transition zone, which is located between the upper and lower mantles and it’s chock full of beautiful minerals that contain water.

In March 2018, a team of researchers announced that diamonds had been found within the mantle which had water inside. The seismic data map that was constructed also showed that water-friendly minerals were trapped inside the Earth. This has led scientists to believe that a huge volume of water could be lurking beneath the Earth’s surface. This could potentially mean a few oceans’ worths of water are trapped beneath our feet.

However, this does raise a significant question. How is this possible? How were these mantle minerals able to trap so much water beneath the surface of the Earth?

The Transition Zone Holds Water-Rich Mantle Minerals

Mantle Minerals in Transition Zone
Mantle Minerals in Transition Zone

As the transition zone approaches 410 kilometers below the Earth’s surface, olivine is crushed into wadsleyite. High temperatures and pressures squeeze the olivine down and create gaps. This was only realized back in 1987 by a mineralogist named Joe Smyth. Turns out, these gaps would be perfect for the hydrogen atoms to nestle in and bond with adjacent oxygen atoms. Hence, when wadsleyite melts, it gives way to the water.

When one ventures deeper to the center of the Earth, they realize that these mantle minerals give way to ringwoodite.  Researchers in the 1990s conducted experiments on both ringwoodite and wadsleyite and found that they held 1-3% of their weight in water. Extrapolating from the current data, the transition zone is roughly 250 kilometers thick and accounts for 7% of the Earth’s mass. The crust, by comparison, is a paltry 1%. Hence, this means the transition zone could potentially hold more water than the Earth’s oceans.

Mantle Minerals: Speculation vs. Fact

Of course, this doesn’t mean that we can just start digging out of anticipation to solve the world’s water crisis. The analysis and calculation yield potential only. Hence, they show how much water the mantle minerals can hold. They don’t show what the actual water content is. According to Wendy Panero, Geophysicist at Ohio State, the calculation only shows “how wet the sponge is”.

One more caveat that the researchers hadn’t taken into account was the nature of ringwoodite. Most of them were only testing lab-grown ringwoodite. Most of the ringwoodite they had found in nature was within meteorites. However, that all changed in 2014.

What Does The World Cup Have To Do With Mantle Minerals?

During the 2014 Football World Cup in Brazil, geologists headed to the farmlands around Juina, which is 2000 kilometers west of Brasilia, Brazil’s capital. They were hunting for diamonds that had been banned from the local rivers. The diamonds were formed from heat and high pressure of the mantle and hence, they trapped other trace minerals. Due to the toughness and hardness of diamonds, these mantle minerals were likely to be preserved fully.

Brazil World Cup Mantle Minerals?
Brazil World Cup & Mantle Minerals?

The researchers were successful in buying more than a thousand of the precious stones. Back at the University of Alberta, Graham Pearson found ringwoodite in one diamond. This ringwoodite had water inside it, which was by 1% weight.

At last, Ringwoodite was found outside of a meteorite. Now there was actual proof that there was water within mantle minerals that lay beneath our feet. However, as seismologist Brandon Schmandt from UNM pointed out, it’s implausible that this represented an “average of the… transition zone”.

To put that claim to the test, Schmandt assembled a team to map the transition zone.  They would conduct seismic tests on a portion of the Earth’s mantle. They would use seismic waves to cause convection within the hydrous ringwoodite in the mantle. As a result, this would create pressure that would shake the water out. The mineral would then, in turn, melt and beneath the transition zone, pools of molten minerals would slow the seismic waves. The measurement of these waves beneath North America showed the research team that water was indeed trapped in mantle minerals. Another study beneath the European Alps provided similar results.

In March 2018, mineralogist Oliver Tschauner from the University of Nevada discovered diamonds containing water ice. This was the first independent observation of freely existing water from the mantle. Samples like this one were also found in southern Africa, China, and other places.

What do Mantle Minerals mean for Planet Earth?

For centuries, many believed that most of the Earth’s water came from the meteorites that struck the planet. Other explanations were thrown by the wayside. However, if further research proves that there is water beneath the mantle, then that story will have to be amended.

The transition zone, if only 1% water by weight, would contain twice the water in the world’s oceans. While the lower mantle is considered much drier, it’s also considered to be filled with water. This means that some of the planet’s water would’ve always been there. Despite the heat that the Earth experienced in its early days, water molecules may have stuck to earthbound dust particles. These would have then coalesced into the mantle minerals that we know of today.

449 thoughts on “Mantle Minerals Inside The Earth Have All The Water We Need

  1. Pingback: walmart pharmacy viagra price

  2. Pingback: cost of cialis at walmart

  3. Pingback: does viagra make last longer

  4. Pingback: which is better viagra or cialis

  5. Pingback: woman viagra fucked

  6. Pingback: generic cialis canadian

  7. Pingback: buy cialis united kingdom

  8. Pingback: buy cialis drug

  9. Pingback: amoxicillin dosage for tooth abscess

  10. Pingback: azithromycin z pack 5 day

  11. Pingback: is celecoxib an nsaid

  12. Pingback: cephalexin and digestive health

  13. Pingback: cymbalta drowsiness

  14. Pingback: cialis original for sale

  15. Pingback: amoxicillin dosis

  16. Pingback: where can u buy cialis

  17. Pingback: azithromycin overdose

  18. Pingback: hyjjrirn

  19. Pingback: where can i buy cialis without a prescription

  20. Pingback: celebrex side effects in men

  21. Pingback: cephalexin can treat h pylori

  22. Pingback: what was viagra originally made for

  23. Pingback: waar kan je viagra kopen

  24. Pingback: duloxetine 60 mg prices

  25. Pingback: how many days does 4 pills of zithromax work in the body

  26. Pingback: cialis sale 20mg

  27. Pingback: how many mg of sildenafil is best

  28. Pingback: 5 mg cialis

  29. Pingback: buying viagra online

  30. Pingback: can i buy cialis online

  31. Pingback: cialis 20mg low price

  32. Pingback: nombre generico del viagra

  33. Pingback: linkedin profile writing service

  34. Pingback: how to write a research paper

  35. Pingback: i need help writing my college essay

  36. Pingback: buy cialis online in canada

  37. Pingback: help me do my essay

  38. Pingback: essay about ethics in business

  39. Pingback: viagra with no script

  40. Pingback: can i buy cialis online

  41. Pingback: buy amoxil online

  42. Pingback: drug lasix 40 mg

  43. Pingback: how much is zithromax

  44. Pingback: stromectol 3 mg tablet

  45. Pingback: albuterol nebulizer

  46. Pingback: teva viagra cost

  47. Pingback: generic cialis online

  48. Pingback: viagra overdose

  49. Pingback: cialis viagra

  50. Pingback: vardenafil generic

  51. Pingback: mom slips son viagra

  52. Pingback: cialis black

  53. Pingback: accidental viagra

  54. Pingback: side effects viagra

  55. Pingback: tadalafil 5mg

  56. Pingback: doxycycline prices

  57. Pingback: prednisolone dexamethasone difference

  58. Pingback: clomid ovulation day

  59. Pingback: viagra boots

  60. Pingback: buying viagra

  61. Pingback: priligy 30 mg

  62. Pingback: viagra effective time

  63. Pingback: canadian viagra

  64. Pingback: nystatin and diflucan

  65. Pingback: levitra generic

  66. Pingback: cialis copay card

  67. Pingback: viagra sales

  68. Pingback: synthroid allergy

  69. Pingback: how does cialis work

  70. Pingback: viagra natural

  71. Pingback: better than viagra

  72. Pingback: buy essay online safe

  73. Pingback: thesis binding service

  74. Pingback: essay writing service law school

  75. Pingback: writing a dissertation for dummies

  76. Pingback: cheap custom essays online

  77. Pingback: essay writing service recommendation

  78. Pingback: dissertation proposal format

  79. Pingback: generic propecia

  80. Pingback: write my essay

  81. Pingback: pay someone to write your paper

  82. Pingback: ver to bay cialis 20mg

  83. Pingback: how many 5mg cialis can you take at once

  84. Pingback: generic viagra in usa store

  85. Pingback: cialis 20mg

  86. Pingback: get cialis overnight

  87. Pingback: hot viagra tv commercial women

  88. Pingback: contraindication of viagra

  89. Pingback: robin williams viagra full version

  90. Pingback: cialis lilly coupon

  91. Pingback: cialis for daily use cost

  92. Pingback: sildenafil products for sale

  93. Pingback: perfect dose for cialis

  94. Pingback: women on viagra fucking video

  95. Pingback: neurontin opiate

  96. Pingback: buy generic cialis india

  97. Pingback: metformin instructions

  98. Pingback: comprar viagra online forocoches

  99. Pingback: paxil doses

  100. Pingback: sildenafil 20 mg mexico

  101. Pingback: who sells plaquenil

  102. Pingback: buy prescription drugs from canada

  103. Pingback: canada online pharmacy

  104. Pingback: cialis deliver next day

  105. Pingback: tadalafil generic 20mg

  106. Pingback: buy cialis reliable

  107. Pingback: cialis 20mg price in canada

  108. Pingback: buy sildenafil 100mg uk

  109. Pingback: best site to buy generic cialis

  110. Pingback: eumed order cialis generico online

  111. Pingback: can i order cialis online in canada

  112. Pingback: sophia viagra nude

  113. Pingback: sildenafil price comparison

  114. Pingback: cheap cialis online from india

  115. Pingback: levitra 10mg vs 20mg australia

  116. Pingback: pas cher viagra soft 50 en online

  117. Pingback: desyrel interactions cialis

  118. Pingback: cialis generic online uk

  119. Pingback: cialis generic name australia

  120. Pingback: cialis patent expiration

  121. Pingback: buy generic cialis online 40mg

  122. Pingback: sildenafil 25 mg cost

  123. Pingback: pharmacy northwest canada

  124. Pingback: cialis legal france

  125. Pingback: acheter viagra 200

  126. Pingback: levitra 20mg how to use australia

  127. Pingback: sildenafil soft tabs 100mg

  128. Pingback: sildenafil (viagra) tadalafil (cialis) and vardenafil (levitra)

  129. Pingback: Levitra Oral Jelly

  130. Pingback: Cilostazol

  131. Pingback: indian cialis

  132. Pingback: cialis none prescription

  133. Pingback: where do you inject liquid cialis

  134. Pingback: canadian pharmacy 20mg

  135. Pingback: payday loan lenders richardson

  136. Pingback: 20mg usa

  137. Pingback: viagra causing retinal bleeding

  138. Pingback: viagra american express

  139. Pingback: cash advance coachella

  140. Pingback: comprar viagra cordoba

  141. Pingback: tinder Plus vs Tinder Gold

  142. Pingback: in europe

  143. Pingback: lovely lilith viagra falls

  144. Pingback: where can i buy ativan in canada

  145. Pingback: best free interracial dating site

  146. Pingback: cialis professional 20 mg

  147. Pingback: 60 mg cialis too much

  148. Pingback: canadian pharmacy celebrex

  149. Pingback: buy cialis in las vegas

  150. Pingback: rx compounding pharmacy

  151. Pingback: cialis prescription assistance program

  152. Pingback: what happens if a woman takes viagra or cialis

  153. Pingback: Micardis

  154. Pingback: walgreens cialis prices

  155. Pingback: sildenafil pharmacy prices

  156. Pingback: cialis cost australia

  157. Pingback: natural viagra alternative

  158. Pingback: cialis free shipping

  159. Pingback: order viagra online

  160. Pingback: cialis patent expired

  161. Pingback: generic viagra cost

  162. Pingback: cialis 10mg india

  163. Pingback: online viagra pharmacy

  164. Pingback: gabapentin medication

  165. Pingback: tadalafil online pharmacy

  166. Pingback: levitra sales

  167. Pingback: herbal viagra

  168. Pingback: amlodipine doses

  169. Pingback: atorvastatin calcium

  170. Pingback: meloxicam 10

  171. Pingback: metoprolol succinate warnings

  172. Pingback: losartan 50 mg

  173. Pingback: viagra coupon discount

  174. Pingback: tadalafil research liquid

  175. Pingback: levitra discounts

  176. Pingback: warnings for duloxetine

  177. Pingback:

  178. Pingback: prednisone withdrawal

  179. Pingback: amitriptyline for cats

  180. Pingback: cymbalta withdrawal symptoms

  181. Pingback: hydrochlorothiazide danger

  182. Pingback: metformin 1000 mg

  183. Pingback: side effects for mirtazapine

  184. Pingback: wellbutrin for anxiety

  185. Pingback: buspirone moa

  186. Pingback: medicine citalopram 10mg

  187. Pingback: tizanidine medication

  188. Pingback: bupropion er

  189. Pingback: voltaren emulgel

  190. Pingback: clonidine generic price

  191. Pingback: finasteride 5mg side effects

  192. Pingback: coreg

  193. Pingback: metronidazole dose

  194. Pingback: generic cialis reviews

  195. Pingback: viagra cheap

  196. Pingback: generic tadalafil pills

  197. Pingback: comprar viagra

  198. Pingback: levitra walmart

  199. Pingback: 5 day prednisone side effects

  200. Pingback: how does hydroxychloroquine treat malaria

  201. Pingback: priligy tablets price

  202. Pingback: free to reply dating

  203. Pingback: aciclovir

  204. Pingback: amoxicillin capsule 500mg price

  205. Pingback: what is aricept

  206. Pingback: amoxicillin and alcohol

  207. Pingback: zithromax cream

  208. Pingback: cefdinir side effects

  209. Pingback: cephalexin price in india

  210. Pingback: what is clindamycin

  211. Pingback: erythromycin ointment eye

  212. Pingback: azithromycin capsules 250mg

  213. Pingback: dapoxetine dapoxetine for bph

  214. Pingback: daily cialis

  215. Pingback: best buy cialis

  216. Pingback: canadian viagra pharmacy

  217. Pingback: cialis forum

  218. Pingback: cialis canada pharmacy

  219. Pingback: cialis paypal australia

  220. Pingback: levitra 60 mg

  221. Pingback: sildenafil medication cost

  222. Pingback: albuterol sulfate inhaler coupons

  223. Pingback: over the counter hydroxychloroquine

  224. Pingback: cialis tablets 20mg price

  225. Pingback: cialis brand name

  226. Pingback: viagra cvs

  227. Pingback: viagra free samples

  228. Pingback: genuine viagra canada

  229. Pingback: 100mg viagra

  230. Pingback: sildenafil 100mg mexico

  231. Pingback: viagra definition

  232. Pingback: viagra coupon

  233. Pingback: get hydroxychloroquine online

  234. Pingback: amlodipine 5 mg

  235. Pingback: cialis daily

  236. Pingback: canadian pharmacy levitra

  237. Pingback: metformin recall 2021

  238. Pingback: cialis 50mg pills

  239. Pingback: amoxicillin 500 mg price

  240. Pingback: doxycycline for dogs

  241. Pingback: lasix

  242. Pingback: xenical 84 cap 120mg

  243. Pingback: priligy price in usa

  244. Pingback: finasteride side effects men

  245. Pingback: bimatoprost generic for eyelashes

  246. Pingback: clomiphene citrate tablet

  247. Pingback: diflucan dosage infant

  248. Pingback: domperidone dose for lactation

  249. Pingback: hydroxychloroquinea dosis

  250. Pingback: hydroxychloroquine online pharmacy

  251. Pingback: nolvadex and clomid pct

  252. Pingback: prednisolone tablets 25mg price

  253. Pingback: naltrexone oral solution

  254. Pingback: valacyclovir dose cold sore

  255. Pingback: zanaflex dose range

  256. Pingback: cialis tablets generic

  257. Pingback: best tadalafil generic

  258. Pingback: ciprofloxacin warnings precautions

  259. Pingback: real cialis pills

  260. Pingback: cialis ebay

  261. Pingback: cialis works

  262. Pingback: sildenafil best price

  263. Pingback: Google

  264. Pingback: northwest pharmacy canada phone number

  265. Pingback: nevada governor hoarding hydroxychloroquine

  266. Pingback: walgreens pharmacy application online

  267. Pingback: viagra sample

  268. Pingback: how often can i take viagra

  269. Pingback: truth about chloroquine

  270. Pingback: canada drug pharmacy viagra

  271. Pingback: how much does viagra cost per pill

  272. Pingback:

  273. Pingback: has ivermectil gone generic yet

  274. Pingback: lestelle krick acyclovir

  275. Pingback: can women take mens priligy

  276. Pingback: ivermectin capsule uses

  277. Pingback: amlodipine potassium

  278. Pingback: ivermectin 1000mg

  279. Pingback: prozac memory loss

  280. Pingback: omeprazole long term

  281. Pingback: quetiapine 25mg sleep

  282. Pingback: is escitalopram an anticholinergic

  283. Pingback: fibromyalgia pain killers

  284. Pingback: stromectol for sale online

  285. Pingback: duloxetine dr 30mg good for rhumetoid arthritis

  286. Pingback: buy viagra online

  287. Pingback: viagra connect

  288. Pingback: olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide

  289. Pingback: what is the best time to take atorvastatin

  290. Pingback: buy viagra online usa

  291. Pingback: how long does zoloft withdrawal last

  292. Pingback: viagra generic online

  293. Pingback: viagra generic

  294. Pingback: cialis 20 mg online

  295. Pingback: cialis online

  296. Pingback: escitalopram renal dosing

  297. Pingback: buy generic cialis online

  298. Pingback: cheap cialis online

  299. Pingback: sildenafil coupon

  300. Pingback: duloxetine 30mg capsules 558

  301. Pingback: 1

  302. Pingback: online generic viagra

  303. Pingback: where can i purchase cialis

  304. Pingback: viagra professional

  305. Pingback: viagra order

  306. Pingback: buy generic sildenafil in usa

  307. Pingback: stromectol 6mg tablets

  308. Pingback: amoxicillin for syphilis

  309. Pingback: tadalafil 20mg india

  310. Pingback: buy sildenafil

  311. Pingback: cheap viagra

  312. Pingback: rx cialis

  313. Pingback: propecia dht

  314. Pingback: can i buy prednisone at walmart

  315. Pingback: sildenafil 100mg

  316. Pingback: generic cialis online no prescription

  317. Pingback: viagra prices

  318. Pingback: ivermectin liquid

  319. Pingback: can i buy generic viagra

  320. Pingback: humans antiparasitic for syphilis

  321. Pingback: ivermectin 3mg tablets sale

  322. Pingback: tadalafil uk pharmacy

  323. Pingback: buying viagra on line

  324. Pingback: stromectol 12 mg capsule price

  325. Pingback: where to buy cialis in stores

  326. Pingback: z pack medication

  327. Pingback: ivermectin for sheep and goats

  328. Pingback: ivermectin for ringworm

  329. Pingback: ivermectin cream reviews

  330. Pingback: ivermectin resistance

  331. Pingback: where can i get cheap viagra

  332. Pingback: ventolin 2mg

  333. Pingback: female viagra the pink pill is finally here book review

  334. Pingback: ivermectin pellets for horses

  335. Pingback: ivermectin shampoo for guinea pigs

  336. Pingback: is viagra for men under 40

  337. Pingback: purchase ivermectin

  338. Pingback: viagra for sale online australia

  339. Pingback: generic cialis

  340. Pingback: overnight cialis

  341. Pingback: zithromax use

  342. Pingback: how to buy viagra online without prescription

  343. Pingback: plaquenil and milk

  344. Pingback: amazon viagra

  345. Pingback: buy sildenafil online

  346. Pingback: lisinopril ratiopharm 20

  347. Pingback: viagra online usa

  348. Pingback: dapoxetine priligy india

  349. Pingback: stromectol dosage

  350. Pingback: non prescription cialis

  351. Pingback: clomiphene tablets clomipheneqb

  352. Pingback: ivermectin pills for scabies treatment

  353. Pingback: azithromycin over the counter for humans

  354. Pingback: ivermectin 6 mg tablets

  355. Pingback: viagra alternatives

  356. Pingback: zithromax otc

  357. Pingback: what is viagra

  358. Pingback: viagra average cost

  359. Pingback: sildenafil 100mg without prescription

  360. Pingback: generic viagra without a doctor prescription

  361. Pingback: viagra without dr prescription

  362. Pingback: sildenafilo

  363. Pingback: levitra vs viagra

  364. Pingback: viagra tablets australia

  365. Pingback: walgreens pharmacy drive thru

  366. Pingback: purchase amoxil 500mg

  367. Pingback: viagra tablets

  368. Pingback: lasix 12.5

  369. Pingback: neurontin coupon

  370. Pingback: plaquenil online

  371. Pingback: apo prednisone

  372. Pingback: viagra wirkung

  373. Pingback: priligy buy online

  374. Pingback: modafinil 600mg

  375. Pingback: hydroxychloroquine 200mg for sale online

  376. Pingback: ivermectin 6mg

  377. Pingback: ventolin tablet 4mg

  378. Pingback: azithromycin pill

  379. Pingback: bestellen viagra

  380. Pingback: gabapentin in mexico

  381. Pingback: order prescription viagra online

  382. Pingback: can you buy viagra over the counter nz

  383. Pingback: stromectol for sale canada

  384. Pingback: tadalafil canada

  385. Pingback: albuterol from canada

  386. Pingback: viagra for men

  387. Pingback: buy generic tadalafil online

  388. Pingback: tadalafil generic

  389. Pingback: price for viagra

  390. Pingback: over the counter male viagra canada

  391. Pingback: cheap viagra canada

  392. Pingback: taking viagra

  393. Pingback: female viagra pill

  394. Pingback: buy viagra

  395. Pingback: mobile adult sex games

  396. Pingback: sildenafil teva

  397. Pingback: walgreens viagra

  398. Pingback: buy viagra cheap

  399. Pingback: viagra sildenafil

  400. Pingback: purchase ivermectin

  401. Pingback: meritking

  402. Pingback: elexusbet

  403. Pingback: eurocasino

  404. Pingback: madridbet

  405. Pingback: meritroyalbet

  406. Pingback: eurocasino

  407. Pingback: eurocasino

  408. Pingback: cialis pills 20mg

  409. Pingback: azithromycin and alcohol

  410. Pingback: meritroyalbet

  411. Pingback: viagra connect walmart

  412. Pingback: cialis paypal

  413. Pingback: cialis generico

  414. Pingback: viagra fuck

  415. Pingback: mandy flores viagra

  416. Pingback: generic viagra usa

  417. Pingback: maximum dose of viagra

  418. Pingback: cialis vs viagra reviews

  419. Pingback: natural viagra alternatives

  420. Pingback: what is the generic name for cialis

  421. Pingback: when will generic cialis be available in us

  422. Pingback: tizanidine 6 mg

  423. Pingback: mulnopiravir

  424. Pingback: buy aralen 0.5

  425. Pingback: olumiant 4 mg

  426. Pingback: baricitinib 4mg

  427. Pingback: cialis generic

  428. Pingback: azithromycin arrhythmia

  429. Pingback: amoxil

  430. Pingback: ciprofloxacin injectable

  431. Pingback: keflex dosing

  432. Pingback: zithromax group

  433. Pingback: amoxicillin ciprofloxacin

  434. Pingback: cefixime

  435. Pingback: flagyl alcoholism

  436. Pingback: cephalexin beer

  437. Pingback: omnicef pdr

  438. Pingback: celebrex capsule

  439. Pingback: madritbet

  440. Pingback: meritroyalbet

  441. Pingback: meritking

  442. Pingback: eurocasino

  443. Pingback: madridbet

  444. Pingback: elexusbet

  445. Pingback: meritroyalbet giriş

  446. Pingback: bahis siteleri

  447. Pingback: 3regulations

  448. Pingback: viagra

  449. Pingback: revatio

Comments are closed.